## Fluid Mechanics Short Notes

**Fluid Mechanics** is the study of the behavior of fluids, which are substances that flow under the application of shear stress. Liquids and gases are the two primary types of fluids.

### Basic Concepts

**Fluid:**A substance that deforms continuously under the application of shear stress.**Viscosity:**The resistance of a fluid to flow.**Pressure:**Force per unit area.**Density:**Mass per unit volume.**Velocity:**Rate of change of displacement.**Acceleration:**Rate of change of velocity.

### Fluid Statics

**Hydrostatic Pressure:**The pressure exerted by a fluid at rest.**Pascal's Law:**Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point within the fluid.**Buoyancy:**The upward force exerted by a fluid on an object immersed in it.

### Fluid Dynamics

**Fluid Flow:**The motion of a fluid.**Flow Rate:**The volume of fluid passing through a given cross-section per unit time.**Continuity Equation:**Mass flow rate remains constant in a pipe of varying cross-section.**Bernoulli's Equation:**Relates pressure, velocity, and elevation for a steady, incompressible fluid flow.**Reynolds Number:**A dimensionless parameter that predicts whether flow is laminar or turbulent.

### Applications of Fluid Mechanics

**Hydraulic Systems:**Used to transmit power and control machinery.**Aerodynamics:**The study of the interaction between air and moving objects.**Hydraulic Engineering:**Design of dams, canals, and pipelines.**Meteorology:**The study of atmospheric phenomena.**Biofluid Mechanics:**The study of fluid flow in biological systems.

### Key Equations

**Hydrostatic Pressure:**$P = ρgh$**Bernoulli's Equation:**$P₁/ρ + v₁²/2g + h₁ = P₂/ρ + v₂²/2g + h₂$**Continuity Equation:**$A₁v₁ = A₂v₂$

### For further study, refer to the following topics:

**Fluid Properties:**Viscosity, surface tension, compressibility.**Flow Measurement:**Pitot tube, Venturi meter, Orifice meter.**Flow Visualization:**Smoke visualization, dye injection.**Turbulent Flow:**Mean and fluctuating quantities, statistical analysis.**Compressible Flow:**Mach number, shock waves, nozzle design.

This is a brief overview of Fluid Mechanics. It provides a foundation for understanding the principles and applications of this important branch of engineering.

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