s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

The s-block elements are the first two groups of the periodic table, also known as Group 1 (Alkali Metals) and Group 2 (Alkaline Earth Metals). Here's a quick summary of their key features:

s-Block Elements - General Characteristics

Electron Configuration:

Alkali metals (Group 1): 1 electron in the outermost s-orbital (ns¹).
Alkaline earth metals (Group 2): 2 electrons in the outermost s-orbital (ns²).
Reactivity: Highly reactive due to their tendency to lose electrons and form positively charged ions (cations).

Physical Properties:

Alkali metals: Soft, silvery-white, low melting and boiling points.
Alkaline earth metals: Harder, whiter, higher melting and boiling points than alkali metals.

Chemical Properties:

Form ionic compounds: React readily with non-metals to form ionic salts.
Strongly basic oxides and hydroxides: Their solutions are strongly alkaline due to the release of hydroxide ions (OH⁻).

Alkali Metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr)

Highly reactive: React vigorously with water, forming strong bases (hydroxides).

Low ionization energies: Easily lose their single valence electron.

Soft and light: Can be cut with a knife.

Impart characteristic colors to flames: Li (crimson), Na (yellow), K (violet), Rb (red), Cs (blue).

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

Alkaline Earth Metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)

Less reactive than alkali metals: React with water slowly, forming less soluble hydroxides.

Higher ionization energies: Need more energy to remove two valence electrons.

Harder and denser than alkali metals: Except for Be, which is brittle.

Form stable oxides and carbonates. 

s-Block Elements - Key Differences

s-Block Elements - Key Differences

s-Block Elements - Important Compounds

Sodium chloride (NaCl): Table salt
Potassium hydroxide (KOH): Caustic potash
Magnesium oxide (MgO): Periclase
Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃): Limestone

s-Block Elements - Specific Examples

Lithium (Li): Lightest metal, used in batteries.
Sodium (Na): Essential element for living organisms, used in table salt (NaCl).
Magnesium (Mg): Essential element for bones and teeth, used in alloys.
Calcium (Ca): Essential element for bones and teeth, used in cement.

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚

s-Block Elements - Chemistry Short Notes 📚