Chemical Compounds with their Corresponding Names

Chemical elements are the basic building blocks of all matter. They are pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. There are currently 118 known elements, each with its own unique set of properties.

The most common way to represent chemical elements is with their chemical symbols. These are one- or two-letter abbreviations that are derived from the element's name or from a Latin name for the element. For example, the symbol for hydrogen is H, the symbol for oxygen is O, and the symbol for sodium is Na.

Chemical formulas are used to represent chemical compounds. A chemical compound is a substance that is made up of two or more elements that are chemically bonded together. The formula for a compound shows the elements that make up the compound and the number of atoms of each element that are present in a molecule of the compound.

For example, the formula for water is H2O. This means that a molecule of water contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.

There are two main types of chemical formulas:

  1. Molecular formulas show the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound.
  2. Empirical formulas show the smallest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.

In addition to molecular and empirical formulas, there are also structural formulas and Lewis structures, which show the arrangement of atoms and bonds in a molecule.

Chemical elements and formulas are essential for understanding chemistry. They are used to describe the composition of matter, to predict the properties of substances, and to understand how chemical reactions occur.

Chemical Elements and Formulas

Here are some additional resources that you may find helpful:

Chemical Elements and Formulas - Inorganic Compounds

Salts:

  1. Common salt (NaCl): Sodium chloride, the most common type of salt used for seasoning food.
  2. Baking soda (NaHCO₃): Sodium bicarbonate, a leavening agent used in baking.
  3. Washing soda (Na₂CO₃ 10H₂O): Sodium carbonate decahydrate, used for cleaning and water softening.
  4. Caustic Soda (NaOH): Sodium hydroxide, a strong base used in various industrial applications.
  5. Suhaga (Na₂B₄O₇ 10H₂O): Sodium borate decahydrate, also known as borax, used as a flux in soldering and in cleaning.
  6. Alum (K₂SO₄ Al₂(SO₄)₃ 24H₂O): Potassium alum, a double sulfate used in water purification and as a styptic agent.
  7. Red medicine (KMnO₄): Potassium permanganate, a strong oxidizing agent used as a disinfectant and wound cleanser.
  8. Caustic Potash (KOH): Potassium hydroxide, a strong base similar to sodium hydroxide.
  9. Saltpeter (KNO₃): Potassium nitrate, used as a fertilizer and in the production of gunpowder.
  10. Bleaching powder (Ca(OCl)Cl): Calcium hypochlorite, a chlorine-based bleach.
  11. Lime water (Ca(OH)₂): Calcium hydroxide solution, used as a mild base and antacid.
  12. Gypsum (CaSO₄ 2H₂O): Calcium sulfate dihydrate, used in construction materials and as a soil amendment.
  13. Plaster of Paris (CaSO₄ ½H₂O): Calcium sulfate hemihydrate, used for making casts and molds.
  14. Chalk, Limestone, and Marble (CaCO₃): Different forms of calcium carbonate, used in construction materials, pigments, and agriculture.
  15. Nausadar (NH₄Cl): Ammonium chloride, used as a fertilizer and in soldering.

Gases:

  1. Laughing gas (N₂O): Nitrous oxide, a medical anesthetic with euphoric effects.

Metals and their Compounds:

  1. Litharge (PbO): Lead oxide, used in glassmaking and ceramics.
  2. Galena (PbS): Lead sulfide, the main ore of lead.
  3. Red vermilion (Pb₃O₄): Lead tetroxide, a bright red pigment.
  4. White lead (2PbCO₃ Pb(OH)₂): Lead carbonate and hydroxide, a white pigment used in paints.

Acids and Bases:

  1. Salt acid (HCl): Hydrochloric acid, a strong acid used in various industrial and laboratory applications.
  2. Shore's acid (HNO₃): Nitric acid, a strong oxidizing acid used in fertilizers and explosives.
  3. Amalraj (HNO₃ + HCl (1 : 3)): Aqua regia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids that can dissolve gold and platinum.

Chemical Elements and Formulas - Organic Compounds

  1. Dry ice (CO₂): Solid carbon dioxide, used as a refrigerant and coolant.
  2. Green Case (FeSO₄ 7H₂O): Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate, used in agriculture and as a mordant in dyeing.
  3. Horn Silver (AgCl): Silver chloride, a light-sensitive compound used in photography.
  4. Heavy water (D₂O): Deuterium oxide, a type of water where hydrogen atoms are replaced with deuterium isotopes.
  5. Producer gas (CO + N₂): A mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen, used as a fuel.
  6. Marsh gas (CH₄): Methane, the main component of natural gas.
  7. Vinegar (CH₃COOH): Acetic acid, the main component of vinegar.
  8. Gemaxine (C₆H₆Cl₆): Hexachlorobenzene, a persistent organic pollutant.
  9. Blue Case (CuSO₄ 5H₂O): Copper sulfate pentahydrate, used as an electrolyte, fungicide, and algae control agent.
  10. Alcohol (C₂H₅OH): Ethanol, the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.
  11. Mand (C₆H₁₀O₅): Mannitol, a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener and laxative.
  12. Grape juice (C₆H₁₂O₆): Glucose, the main sugar found in fruits and honey.
  13. Sugar (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁): Sucrose, the table

Chemical Elements and Formulas - Inorganic Compounds:

Sodium compounds:

  1. Common salt (NaCl): Table salt, essential for life and food seasoning.
  2. Baking soda (NaHCO₃): Used as a leavening agent in baking and a mild antacid.
  3. Washing soda (Na₂CO₃ 10H₂O): Used for cleaning and water softening.
  4. Caustic soda (NaOH): Highly alkaline and corrosive, used in soap and paper production.
  5. Suhaga (Na₂B₄O₇ 10H₂O): Used in traditional medicine and metalworking.

Potassium compounds:

  1. Alum (K₂SO₄ Al₂(SO₄)₃ 24H₂O): Used in flocculation and as a mordant in dyeing.
  2. Red medicine (KMnO₄): Used as a disinfectant and antiseptic.
  3. Caustic potash (KOH): Highly alkaline and corrosive, used in soap and fertilizer production.
  4. Saltpeter (KNO₃): Used in fertilizers and historically in gunpowder.

Calcium compounds:

  1. Bleaching powder (Ca(OCl)Cl): Used for bleaching textiles and paper pulp.
  2. Lime water (Ca(OH)₂): Used for testing for CO₂ and in some construction applications.
  3. Gypsum (CaSO₄ 2H₂O): Used in construction materials and as a soil amendment.
  4. Plaster of Paris (CaSO₄ ½H₂O): Used for making casts and molds.
  5. Chalk, Limestone, and Marble (CaCO₃): Different forms of calcium carbonate, used in construction materials, agriculture, and art.

Other inorganic compounds:

  1. Nausadar (NH₄Cl): Ammonium chloride, used in fertilizers and soldering.
  2. Laughing gas (N₂O): Nitrous oxide, used as an anesthetic and in food preparation.
  3. Litharge (PbO): Lead oxide, used in glass and ceramics production.
  4. Galena (PbS): Lead sulfide, the main ore of lead.
  5. Red vermilion (Pb₃O₄): Bright red pigment used in paints and cosmetics.
  6. White lead (2PbCO₃ Pb(OH)₂): White pigment used in paints, now banned due to its toxicity.
  7. Salt acid (HCl): Hydrochloric acid, a strong acid with many industrial and laboratory uses.
  8. Shore's acid (HNO₃): Nitric acid, another strong acid used in fertilizers, explosives, and metal etching.
  9. Amalraj (HNO₃ + HCl (1 : 3)): Aqua regia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids that can dissolve gold and platinum.
  10. Dry ice (CO₂): Solid carbon dioxide, used as a refrigerant and in food preservation.
  11. Green Case (FeSO₄ 7H₂O): Iron sulfate, used in fertilizers and water treatment.
  12. Horn Silver (AgCl): Silver chloride, used in photography and water purification.
  13. Heavy water (D₂O): Deuterium oxide, used as a moderator in nuclear reactors.
  14. Producer gas (CO + N₂): A mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen, used as a fuel.
  15. Marsh gas (CH₄): Methane, the main component of natural gas.

Chemical Elements and Formulas - Organic Compounds:

  • Vinegar (CH₃COOH): Acetic acid, the main component of vinegar.
  • Gemaxine (C₆H₆Cl₆): Hexachlorobenzene, a persistent organic pollutant.
  • Blue Case (CuSO₄ 5H₂O): Copper sulfate, used in fungicides and algicides.
  • Alcohol (C₂H₅OH): Ethanol, the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.
  • Mand (C₆H₁₀O₅): Mannitol, a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener and laxative.
  • Grape juice (C₆H₁₂O₆): Glucose, the main sugar found in fruits.
  • Sugar (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁): Sucrose, table sugar.
  • Urea (NH₂CONH₂): A nitrogen-containing compound used in fertilizers and plastics.
  • Benzene (C₆H₆): A volatile organic compound used in many industrial processes.